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Taking Care

A Guide for Nursing Assistants, Sixth Edition

Written by:  Christina Spencer, BSN, RN

About the Author…

Christina Spencer, RN, is a graduate of Seattle University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing. Christina has spent much of her professional career working in long term care as a charge nurse, staff development coordinator, director of nursing and care consultant. She has been educating nursing assistants since 1980 when she started Nursing Assistant Training Institute in Seattle, Washington.

Taking Care Publications, LLC
(206) 546-6341

Copyright©2018 by Christina Spencer

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This 304 page textbook is written in an easy to use manner for today’s nursing assistant. Complex information has been condensed into understandable basics that are essential for the student. Today’s nursing assistant is called upon to do important and challenging work. Having a comprehensive but easily understood textbook can help the nursing assistant meet these daily challenges.

  • Meets OBRA requirements for nursing assistant training programs.
  • Describes the 2007 Center for Disease Control “Standard Precautions” and “Transmission Based Precautions” guidelines.
  • Details care procedures according to competency testing requirements.
  • Prepares students for competency testing.
  • Presents detailed chapter on blood borne pathogens such as HIV and Hepatitis B and C.
  • Addresses stress management and workplace violence.
  • Emphasizes rehabilitation, resident’s rights and dementia care.
  • Provides students with ample opportunities to test their knowledge with end of chapter quizzes, thought questions, and a review test.
  • Instructors receive with each textbook a 64 page supplement containing additional tear-out quizzes for each chapter and two final exams. This makes implementation of your teaching program easy!

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Role of the Nursing Assistant 

  • The role and responsibilities of the nursing assistant
  • Desirable characteristics of a nursing assistant
  • Code of ethics
  • Legal aspects of being a nursing assistant
  • Health care team
  • Privacy and confidentiality
  • OBRA law

Chapter 2: Working in a Long Term Care Facility 

  • Client’s bill of rights
  • Basic human needs
  • Sexuality and the elderly
  • Cultural and religious needs
  • Physical aging changes
  • Psychosocial losses
  • Workplace violence
  • Coping with stress
  • Depression and the elderly

Chapter 3: Communication/Observations, and the Medical Record 

  • Verbal communication
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Communication with special needs patients (aphasic, hard of hearing, confused)
  • Communication with other health care team members
  • The medical record
  • Documentation
  • Observations and reporting
  • Observation regarding pain

Chapter 4: Medical Terminology and Abbreviations 

  • Medical terminology
  • Abbreviations

Chapter 5: Safety and Emergency Procedures

  • Falls and other types of accidents
  • Fire prevention and what to do in case of fire
  • Accident prevention
  • Food & Safety
  • CPR
  • Abdominal Thrusts

Chapter 6: Restraints 

  • Physical and chemical restraints
  • OBRA law and restraint use
  • Negative results of restraint use
  • Alternatives to restraint use
  • Restraint monitoring
  • Applying a vest restraint
  • Bed rails

Chapter 7: Body Mechanics, Positioning and Ambulating Residents 

  • Preventing back injuries
  • Body mechanics
  • Assistive devices
  • Turning and transferring procedures
  • Proper positioning
  • Ambulation

Chapter 8: Infection Control 

  • Microorganisms and their spread
  • The work environment and infection
  • Medical aseptic techniques
  • Standard precautions
  • Transmission based precautions
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Hand washing
  • Tuberculosis

Chapter 9: Blood Borne Pathogens 

  • Blood borne pathogens
  • HBV
  • Hepatitis C, D, and E

Chapter 10: Assisting with Personal Care 

  • Activities of daily living
  • Bathing
  • bed bath
  • shower
  • tub bath
  • Back rubs
  • Shaving
  • Oral care
  • Fingernail care
  • Dressing
  • Foot care
  • Skin care
  • Decubitus prevention

Chapter 11: Vital Signs 

  • What vitals tell us
  • Measuring body temperature
  • Oral, rectal, axillary, and tympanic temperature
  • Measuring blood pressure
  • Measuring pulse
  • Measuring respirations

Chapter 12: Nutrition 

  • Proper nutrition
  • Therapeutic diets
  • Mealtime assistance
  • Feeding patients
  • Adaptive self feeding devices
  • Mealtime assistance
  • Dysphagia management
  • Alternate feeding measures
  • Tube feedings
  • Intravenous feeding
  • Progressive self feeding programs

Chapter 13: Fluids, and Intake and Output 

  • Why fluids are important
  • Maintaining fluid balance
  • Edema
  • Dehydration
  • Measuring fluid intake and output
  • Calculating measurements

Chapter 14: Gastrointestinal and Urinary Systems 

  • Anatomy and physiology of urinary system
  • Urinary system changes associated with aging
  • Urinary elimination
  • Bladder retraining program
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Catheter care
  • Anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Digestive changes related to aging
  • Bowel elimination
  • Constipation, impactions and diarrhea
  • Bowel retraining

Chapter 15: The Client’s Environment 

  • The client’s unit and equipment
  • Bedmaking
  • unoccupied bed
  • occupied bed
  • Handling linen

Chapter 16: Rehabilitation and Restorative Concepts 

  • Hazards of immobility
  • Rehabilitation
  • Adaptive/assistive devices
  • Rehabilitation team
  • Restorative programs
  • Contractures and their prevention
  • Range of motion
  • Restorative equipment
  • Prosthesis

Chapter 17: Dementia Care 

  • Causes of dementias and cognitive impairment
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Communication with the dementia client
  • Conducive environment for the dementia client
  • Dealing with behavioral disturbances
  • Validation therapy

Chapter 18: Death, Dying and Grieving 

  • Death and dying
  • Grief
  • Signs of approaching death
  • Meeting client’s needs
  • Maintaining comfort
  • Post mortem care

Chapter 19: Special Care and Procedures 

  • Specimen collection
  • Applying elastic hose
  • Measuring heights and weights
  • Use of oxygen
  • Special needs of a resident with a cast
  • Pulse Oximetry

Chapter 20: Common Health Problems 

  • Seizures
  • Osteoporosis
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Transient ischemic attacks
  • Mental Health Issues

Review for Final Test